© 2019 Elsevier LtdAcquired aplastic anemia (AAA) is a rare and potentially life threatening disorder. We retrospectively compared the outcomes of 29 children with AAA who received immunosuppressive therapy (IST) or underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Median age at diagnosis was 9.0 years (range, 2–18 years) and median follow-up period was 36 months (range, 3–108 months). Viral infection associated/post hepatitis AAA was in 6 patients (20.6%). According to the initial laboratory findings, 8 patients were classified as very severe AA (vSAA), 8 as severe AA (SAA), and 13 patients as transfusion-dependent moderate AA (MAA). Out of 13, 5 transfusion-dependent MAA patients progressed SAA in median one month (range, 1–5 months), another 6 MAA patients developed remission or became transfusion free during follow-up. Eight patients underwent upfront matched family donor (MFD) HSCT at median 6 months (range, 1–9 months) and achieved complete response (100%). Fifteen cycles of IST were given to 10 (34%) patients lacking MFD at median 3 months (range, 2–6 months). Fifty percent of patients had complete/partial response after IST protocol. Three patients who were unresponsive to IST, proceeded to alternative donor HSCT, in 2nd or 3rd year after the diagnosis and only 1 patient was sustained remission. Several drugs such as mycophenolatemofetil, high-dose cyclophosphamide, levamisole and eltrombopag have been investigated in order to improve the outcome of patients with AAA. Early intervention in AAA patients results in significantly better outcomes.