© 2021 John Wiley & Sons LtdObjective: Occult hepatitis B infection (OHBI) appears to have a higher prevalence in populations at high risk for hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with concomitant liver disease. The aim was to assess the prevalence of OHBI in a sample of human immunodeficiency virus −1 positive and HBV surface antigen-negative (HIV-1+/HBsAg-) Turkish patients. Methods: Ten centres in Turkey were included in the study. Patients were selected on the basis of a power calculation with a known population size of HIV-positive patients and a reported prevalence of OHBI. Gender, age, occupation, place of residence, treatment and clinical status, and laboratory results, including immunodeficiency panel, antibody tests, hemogram, biochemistry, and coagulation studies were evaluated retrospectively. Results: The number of HIV-infected patients followed in these centres was 3172 and the sample population numbered 278. All 278 were HBsAg negative. The mean age of the sample was 37.2 ± 13.1 years and 235 (84.5%) were male. All but one patient (99.6%) had been treated with antiretroviral therapy. Of the 278 patients, 169 (60.6%) were positive for Anti-HBs and 125 (44.8%) were positive for Anti-HBc IgG. HIV RNA was detected in 203/278 (73%) of the patients. Four HBV DNA (1.4%) were diagnosed with OHBI. There was no significant difference in hemogram, hemoglobin or bilirubin concentrations in those with OHBI compared with the other patients. Conclusion: In a representative sample of HIV+ patients from 10 Turkish centres, the prevalence of OHBI was found to be 1.4%. In HIV positive patients, it is important to identify those with OHBI for optimal clinical management and prognosis.