© TÜBİTAK.Background/aim: A few studies have been carried out in lower limb amputees (LLAs) and they examined the incidence of and reasons for low back pain. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a back school program in LLAs with mechanical low back pain (MLBP). Materials and methods: Forty male unilateral transfemoral amputees with MLBP were randomly allocated into two groups. A back school program was applied to Group 1 over 2 weeks. A booklet for home use was given to each participant in Group 2. Pain was assessed using a visual analogue scale. Spinal flexibility measurements were obtained. For the assessment of back pain-related disability, the Oswestry Disability Index was used. Patients were assessed at baseline, at month 1, and at month 3. Results: At the month 1 assessment, a reduction in pain intensity and disability, and increase in spinal flexibility measurements were detected in Group 1 only (P < 0.05). At the month 3 assessment, there were improvements in all measured parameters in both groups (P < 0.05). Group 1 had better results in all parameters compared with Group 2. Conclusion: The back school program, combined with an exercise program, decreased pain and disability and improved the spinal flexibility significantly in LLAs with MLBP.