Purpose: Since twin pairs with discordance have equal gestational age (GA), discordant twins may constitute an appropriate group to investigate the specific effect that birth weight (BW) has on the development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). The present study aims to investigate the effect of BW on any and severe stages of ROP development in twin pairs. Methods: Fifty-two discordant twin pairs (104 preterms) born = 32 gestational weeks, who were diagnosed with a minimum of 18% discordance between their BWs, were retrospectively analyzed. Twin pairs were separated into two groups based on the BW of each pair. The rate of any stage of ROP, Type 1 ROP, and perinatal risk factors were compared statistically among twin pairs. Results: The rate of any stage of ROP and Type 1 ROP was 24.0% and 4.8% in the whole group, respectively. A statistically significant difference was shown between lower and higher BW groups at any stage of ROP development (34.6% vs. 13.4%, P = 0.02). However, no difference was observed in Type 1 ROP development (7.7% vs. 1.9%, P = 0.17). No significant differences were found between twin pairs regarding neonatal morbidities. The number of small GA (SGA) infants in the smaller twin group was statistically higher than larger group and regression analysis showed that being SGA had significant correlation with any stage of ROP (odds ratio: 4.98, P = 0.02). Conclusion: This study showed that BW serves an effective role at any stage of ROP development in discordant twin pairs; however, no significant difference in terms of Type 1 ROP.