Evaluation of the effectiveness of oxytocin and enalapril in the prevention of epidural fibrosis developed after laminectomy in rats

Karagedik M. I., Yuksel U., KARTAL B., CEYLAN A. F., Ogden M., Bakar B.

Injury, vol.54, no.7, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 54 Issue: 7
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.injury.2023.05.024
  • Journal Name: Injury
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Academic Search Premier, Abstracts in Social Gerontology, Aerospace Database, CINAHL, Communication Abstracts, EMBASE, MEDLINE, Metadex, SportDiscus, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Keywords: Enalapril, Epidural, Fibrosis, Laminectomy, Methylprednisolone, Oxytocin
  • Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University Affiliated: Yes


Introduction: Except for methylprednisolone, there is no current low-cost and low-side-effect drug/barrier method to prevent epidural fibrosis after spine surgery. However, the use of methylprednisolone has led to substantial controversy because of its serious side effects on wound healing. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of enalapril and oxytocin on preventing the development of epidural fibrosis in a rat laminectomy model. Materials: Under sedation anesthesia, T9, T10, and T11 laminectomy was performed on 24 Wistar Albino male rats. The animals were then separated into four groups; Sham group (only laminectomy was performed; n = 6), MP group (laminectomy was performed and 10 mg/kg/day methylprednisolone was administered intraperitoneally (ip) for 14 days; n = 6), ELP group (laminectomy was performed and 0.75 mg/kg/day enalapril was administered ip for 14 days; n = 6), OXT group (laminectomy was performed and 160 µg/kg/day oxytocin was administered ip for 14 days; n = 6). Four weeks after the laminectomy, all the rats were euthanised, and the spines were removed for histopathological, immunohistochemical, and biochemical examinations. Results: Histopathological examinations revealed that the degree of epidural fibrosis (X2=14.316, p = 0.003), collagen density (X2=16.050, p = 0.001), and fibroblast density (X2=17.500, p = 0.001) was higher in the Sham group and lower in the MP, ELP, and OXT groups. Immunohistochemical examinations showed that collagen type 1 immunoreactivity was higher in the Sham group and lower in the MP, ELP, and OXT groups (F = 54.950, p < 0.001). The highest level of α-smooth muscle actin immunoreactivity was seen in the Sham and OXT groups, and the lowest was in the MP and ELP groups (F = 33.357, p < 0.001). Biochemical analysis revealed that tissue levels of TNF-α, TGF-β, IL-6, CTGF, caspase-3, p-AMPK, pmTOR, and mTOR/pmTOR were higher in the Sham group and lower in MP, ELP, and OXT groups (p < 0.05). The GSH/GSSG levels were lower in the Sham group and higher in the other three groups (X2=21.600, p < 0.001). Conclusion: The study results showed that enalapril and oxytocin, which are known to have anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, and autophagy-related regenerative properties, could reduce the development of epidural fibrosis after laminectomy in rats.