Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is a chronic autoinflammatory condition characterized by fever attacks and recurrent polyserositis. Subclinical inflammation that persists during attack-free periods can result in oxidative stress (OS) damage. Thiol groups bind to reactive oxygen radicals and protect cells and tissues from OS damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between thiol-disulfide balance and colchicine resistance in FMF patients during an attack or attack-free period. A newly developed spectrophotometric method was used to measure native thiol (NT) and disulfide (DS) levels in FMF patients and an age-sex matched group of healthy controls. NT and DS levels were compared in FMF patients 1) with vs. without colchicine resistance; and 2) during an attack (FMF-AP) vs. attack-free period (FMF-AFP). A total of 118 FMF patients and 60 healthy controls were studied. NT (P < 0.001) and total thiol (TT) (P < 0.001) levels in FMF patients were significantly lower compared to healthy controls. NT (P = 0.030) and TT (P = 0.010) levels of FMF-AP patients were significantly lower than that of FMF-AFP patients. FMF-AP patients had significantly higher DS levels than FMF-AFP patients (P = 0.039). Compared to FMF patients without colchicine resistance, elevated levels of DS (P = 0.019) but not NT (P = 0.620) and TT (P = 0.718) were found in those with colchicine resistance. Thiol-disulfide homeostasis is altered in FMF patients during an attack period and this imbalance may be associated with colchicine resistance.