© 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.Background Nerve decompression procedures have shown to have promising roles in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy. It is known that not only nerves but also arteries pass through the same compressed anatomical tunnels. The aim of the study is to reveal whether the surgical decompression procedures have a positive effect on hemodynamic and morphological parameters of the arterial structures passing through these anatomic tunnels. Methods Twenty-seven patients who underwent posterior and anterior tarsal tunnel release procedures were retrospectively scanned for preoperative and 3 months postoperative arterial Doppler ultrasound imaging. The preoperative and third month postoperative measurements were compared for flow pattern of artery, flow lumen diameter, pulsatility index (PI), resistance index (RI), and flow volumes by evaluating the hemodynamic and morphological parameters of dorsalis pedis (DPA) and tibialis posterior arteries (TPA). Results For TPA, mean PI values were 5.76 ± 2.78 preoperatively, 7.17 ± 3.08 postoperatively. Mean RI values were 0.94 ± 0.04 preoperatively and 0.89 ± 0.05 postoperatively. For DPA, mean PI values were 5.06 ± 2.14 preoperatively and 6.35 ± 2.31 postoperatively. Mean RI values were 0.93 ± 0.05 preoperatively and 0.86 ± 0.06 postoperatively. When the results are analyzed for both of the arteries, PI values were significantly increased; RI values were significantly decreased when the preoperative measurements were compared with the postoperative measurements (P < 0.05). Conclusion According to these results, it can be suggested that the nerve release procedures have a positive effect on the hemodynamic and morphological parameters of the arteries as they pass through the anatomical tunnels as well as its positive effects on the neurological functions of the entrapped nerves.