Current strategies for the regeneration of skeletal muscle tissue

ALARÇİN E., Bal‐öztürk A., AVCI H., GHORBANPOOR H., Guzel F. D. , Akpek A., ...More

International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol.22, no.11, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 22 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/ijms22115929
  • Title of Journal : International Journal of Molecular Sciences


© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.Traumatic injuries, tumor resections, and degenerative diseases can damage skeletal muscle and lead to functional impairment and severe disability. Skeletal muscle regeneration is a complex process that depends on various cell types, signaling molecules, architectural cues, and physi-cochemical properties to be successful. To promote muscle repair and regeneration, various strategies for skeletal muscle tissue engineering have been developed in the last decades. However, there is still a high demand for the development of new methods and materials that promote skeletal muscle repair and functional regeneration to bring approaches closer to therapies in the clinic that structurally and functionally repair muscle. The combination of stem cells, biomaterials, and bio-molecules is used to induce skeletal muscle regeneration. In this review, we provide an overview of different cell types used to treat skeletal muscle injury, highlight current strategies in biomaterial-based approaches, the importance of topography for the successful creation of functional striated muscle fibers, and discuss novel methods for muscle regeneration and challenges for their future clinical implementation.