Identification of risk factors and cross-reactivity of local anesthetics hypersensitivity: Analysis of 14-years’ experience


Kalkan I. K. , Buhari G. K. , Ates H., Akdogan B. B. , Ozdedeoglu O. E. , Aksu K., ...More

Journal of Asthma and Allergy, vol.14, pp.47-58, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 14
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.2147/jaa.s292442
  • Title of Journal : Journal of Asthma and Allergy
  • Page Numbers: pp.47-58

Abstract

© 2021 Koca Kalkan et al.Purpose: Local anesthetics (LA) are widely used and adverse drug reactions (ADR) occur in 2.5–10%, but hypersensitivity reactions are rare (ranging between 0% and 4.3%). Risk is so overestimated causing too many allergy clinic referrals. There are limited and also conflicting results over the management of LA allergy. We aimed to find out who should be referred to an allergy clinic for a LA allergy testing, to define the subjects with an increased risk of LA allergy and to assess the need for testing for identifying alternative LA. Patients and Methods: We performed a retrospective study of patients referred to our clinic for diagnostic workup of LA hypersensitivity from 2006 to 2020. Results: In our cohort of 398 patients, tests were positive in 14 (3.52%) of them. Personal history of ADR with LA was the only independent risk factor for positive test (RR=4.007, p=0.033). Presence of generalized cutaneous symptoms and hypotension during past reaction were independent predictors of positive test (RR=9.043, p=0.021 and RR=10.445, p=0.038, respectively). The negative predictive value of intradermal test at dilution of 1:100 for immediate-type reaction was high (97.56%). Also, we demonstrated cross-reactivity within the amide-group LAs and co-occurrence of immediate-and delayed-type reactions. Conclusion: Only patients with an LA-induced ADR should be referred to an allergy clinic. History of generalized cutaneous symptoms and/or hypotension during the reaction may define subjects with an increased risk of LA allergy. A stepwise test procedure may start with skin tests especially for these patients with increased risk factors. In presence of LA allergy, alternative LA should always be confirmed by performing a challenge test.