© 2022. All right reserved by the Turkish Joint Diseases FoundationObjectives: This study aims to analyze the in-hospital complication rates in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) following primary total knee (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA). Patients and methods: This retrospective study included a total of 37 patients including 11 patients undergoing TKA (11 males; mean age: 60.8±16.0 years; range, 48 to 80 years) and 26 patients undergoing THA (23 males, 3 females; mean age: 49.9±11.5 years; range, 35 to 70 years) between January 2010 and December 2019. The patients were evaluated in terms of body mass index (BMI), American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) scores, preand postoperative blood tests, indications for surgery, operative time, length of hospital stay, and in-hospital complications. Results: The overall in-hospital complication rate following primary TKA (n=2, 18.2%) and THA (n=2, 7.7%) was 10.8%. Following TKA, one patient had deep vein thrombosis and one patient developed acute renal failure. In the THA group, postoperative delirium and trochanteric fracture were noted. Conclusion: The in-hospital complication rates increased in HIV-positive patients following TKA and THA. The risk of complications can be mitigated with the aid of a better interdisciplinary cooperation and thorough surgical planning.