Best Practice Recommendations for Dysphagia Management in Intensive Care Unit (ICU): A Delphi Study from Multidisciplinary Experts in Turkey

Umay E., Eyigor S., Demirag K., Kaymak Karatas G., Gundogdu I., Giray E., ...More

Dysphagia, vol.39, no.2, pp.241-254, 2024 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 39 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2024
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s00455-023-10606-w
  • Journal Name: Dysphagia
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CINAHL, EMBASE, MEDLINE
  • Page Numbers: pp.241-254
  • Keywords: Diagnosis, Dysphagia, Follow-up, Intensive care unit, Management, Rehabilitation
  • Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University Affiliated: No


There is no study about all aspects of oropharyngoesophageal (OPE) dysphagia from diagnosis to follow-up in a multidisciplinary manner in the world. In order to close this gap, we aimed to create a recommendation study that can be used in clinical practice, addressing all aspects of dysphagia in the ICU in detail with the opinion of experienced multidisciplinary experts. This recommendation paper was generated by a multidisciplinary team, using the seven-step process and a three-modified Delphi round via e-mail. Firstly, 15 open-ended questions were created, and then detailed recommendations including general principles, management, diagnosis, rehabilitation, and follow-up were created with the answers from these questions, Each recommendation item was voted on by the experts as overall consensus (strong recommendation), approaching consensus (weak recommendation), and divergent consensus (not recommended).In the first Delphi round, a questionnaire consisting of 413 items evaluated with a scale of 0–10 was prepared from the opinions and suggestions given to 15 open-ended questions. In the second Delphi round, 55.4% were accepted and revised suggestions were created. At the end of the third Delphi round, the revised suggestion form was approved again and the final proposals containing 133 items were created. This study includes comprehensive and detailed recommendations, including a broad perspective from diagnosis to treatment and follow-up, as detailed as possible, for management of dysphagia in patients with both oropharyngeal- and esophageal-dysphagia in ICU.