Efficacy of β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors to treat extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales bacteremia secondary to urinary tract infection in kidney transplant recipients (INCREMENT-SOT Project)


Pierrotti L. C. , Pérez-Nadales E., Fernández-Ruiz M., Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez B., Tan B. H. , Carratalà J., ...More

Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society, vol.23, no.3, 2021 (Refereed Journals of Other Institutions) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 23 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.1111/tid.13520
  • Title of Journal : Transplant infectious disease : an official journal of the Transplantation Society

Abstract

© 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC.BACKGROUND: Whether active therapy with β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitors (BLBLI) is as affective as carbapenems for extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) bloodstream infection (BSI) secondary to urinary tract infection (UTI) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) remains unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 306 KTR admitted to 30 centers from January 2014 to October 2016. Therapeutic failure (lack of cure or clinical improvement and/or death from any cause) at days 7 and 30 from ESBL-E BSI onset was the primary and secondary study outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Therapeutic failure at days 7 and 30 occurred in 8.2% (25/306) and 13.4% (41/306) of patients. Hospital-acquired BSI (adjusted OR [aOR]: 4.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50-11.20) and Pitt score (aOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.21-1.77) were independently associated with therapeutic failure at day 7. Age-adjusted Charlson Index (aOR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.05-1.48), Pitt score (aOR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.35-2.17), and lymphocyte count ≤500 cells/μL at presentation (aOR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.42-7.06) predicted therapeutic failure at day 30. Carbapenem monotherapy (68.6%, primarily meropenem) was the most frequent active therapy, followed by BLBLI monotherapy (10.8%, mostly piperacillin-tazobactam). Propensity score (PS)-adjusted models revealed no significant impact of the choice of active therapy (carbapenem-containing vs any other regimen, BLBLI- vs carbapenem-based monotherapy) within the first 72 hours on any of the study outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that active therapy based on BLBLI may be as effective as carbapenem-containing regimens for ESBL-E BSI secondary to UTI in the specific population of KTR. Potential residual confounding and unpowered sample size cannot be excluded (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02852902).