A conceptual framework for blockchain-based sustainable supply chain and evaluating implementation barriers: A case of the tea supply chain

Mangla S. K., Kazançoğlu Y., Yıldızbaşı A., Öztürk C., Çalık A.

Business Strategy and the Environment, vol.31, no.8, pp.3693-3716, 2022 (SSCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 31 Issue: 8
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1002/bse.3027
  • Journal Name: Business Strategy and the Environment
  • Journal Indexes: Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI), Scopus, International Bibliography of Social Sciences, ABI/INFORM, Aerospace Database, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, Business Source Elite, Business Source Premier, Communication Abstracts, Environment Index, Geobase, Greenfile, INSPEC, Metadex, Pollution Abstracts, Psycinfo, Public Affairs Index, Civil Engineering Abstracts
  • Page Numbers: pp.3693-3716
  • Keywords: blockchain, spherical fuzzy analytic hierarchy process, sustainability, tea supply chain, traceability
  • Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 ERP Environment and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.The increasing population and income inequality in the last decades have made it necessary to focus on the concept of sustainability. In the changing world order, with economic crises, instabilities, pandemics, and social media, sustainability awareness differs significantly from past years. In addition, developing new technologies and concepts (big data, blockchain, IoT, robotic, etc.) plays a crucial role in meeting social awareness in terms of sustainability. Food sustainability is also one of the most important pillars in this concept. The integration of new technologies in agriculture and food chains will enable the current world population to use resources more efficiently and sustainably. Blockchain, one of the technologies that emerged with the arrival of Industry 4.0, is a technology that can be used effectively in many sectors. Particularly in supply chain networks, it is seen as a technology that supports the sustainability concept due to its features such as decentralization, reliability, transparency, consensus standards, and traceability. However, since blockchain is an immature and new technology, there are some challenges with integrating it into existing conventional systems. This study aims to present a conceptual framework for the integration of blockchain technology to establish a sustainable tea supply chain, define possible actions, and prioritize the possible risks that may arise in this integration process; this will be done through the Spherical Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (SF-AHP) approach. In this context, initially, the current tea supply chain will be considered and the activities carried out will be defined in terms of technological, environmental, and strategic sustainability. Then, the design that includes the integration of all activities with blockchain technology is presented. The proposed design covers the entire tea supply chain from end to end and is considered with regard to all sustainability dimensions. In the proposed framework, barriers that may be encountered and risks that may arise at each stage of the tea supply chain process are identified; managerial implications are then presented to eliminate these risks. To enhance the use of the recommendations made, risks and barriers are prioritized with SF-AHP management. Thus, the problems that need to be solved primarily in the technological transformation process can be evaluated more clearly. The proposed theoretical framework is expected to extend to all agricultural practices and support technological advances throughout the agricultural sector.