© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.Studies have shown that irrational beliefs are important psychological structures that directly relate with anger and personality traits. However, the joint effect of irrational beliefs on the two variables is not clear. This study aimed to investigate the effect of anger and personality traits on irrational beliefs in nursing students. The research was carried out with 321 nursing students studying at two different universities in Turkiye. The nursing students completed the Trait Anger and Anger Expression Style Scale (TAAESS), Sociotropy/Autonomy Scale (SAS), and the Rational Emotional Self-Determination Scale (RESDS). Data were analyzed by structural equation modeling using the AMOS 20.0 software. As a result of the structural equation model, we found that the sociotropic personality trait affects irrational thought and irrational thought affects anger, but the sociotropic personality trait did not affect anger. The direct effect of the sociotropic personality trait on anger was 0.05, while its indirect effect was 0.26. The findings suggest that sociotropic personality traits such as seeking approval from others and valuing interpersonal relationships can lead to the formation of irrational beliefs. Preventing irrational beliefs in university nursing students is essential for ensuring anger control in young people and developing interpersonal relationships.