Convergence in per capita carbon footprint and ecological footprint for G7 countries: Evidence from panel Fourier threshold unit root test

Yılancı V., Görüş M. Ş. , Soların S. A.

ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT, vol.33, no.3, pp.527-545, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SSCI)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 33 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1177/0958305x211011461
  • Title of Journal : ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT
  • Page Numbers: pp.527-545


This paper aims to explore the convergence of per capita carbon and ecological footprints in G7 countries during 1961–2016. For this purpose, we propose a new unit root test in the panel setting–the panel Fourier threshold unit root test. This test takes into consideration both multiple smooth structural changes and nonlinearity. According to the literature, the power of the nonlinear unit root tests is reduced in the case of ignoring structural breaks. Therefore, we expect to get more reliable empirical findings by utilizing this methodology. The empirical results of this paper show that these series have nonlinear behaviors for the period 1961–2016. Furthermore, they demonstrate that the absolute convergence hypothesis is valid in G7 countries for both regimes. Thus, governments can conduct common environmental policies, including international climate summits and agreements, instead of national-based policies to mitigate environmental deterioration in their countries.