Electrochemical-based ‘‘antibiotsensor’’ for the whole-cell detection of the vancomycin-susceptible bacteria


Norouz Dizaji A., Ali Z., Ghorbanpoor H., Ozturk Y., AKÇAKOCA İ. , AVCI H., ...More

Talanta, vol.234, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier

Abstract

© 2021In this study, we aim to develop an antibiotic-based biosensor platform ‘Antibiotsensor’ for the specific detection of gram-positive bacteria using vancomycin modified Screen Printed Gold Electrodes (SPGEs). Through this pathway, vancomycin molecules were first functionalized with thiol groups and characterized with quadrupole time of flight (q-TOF) mass spectroscopy analysis. Immobilization of thiolated vancomycin molecules (HS-Van) onto SPGEs was carried out based on self-assembled monolayer (SAM) phenomenon. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was employed to test the detection and showed a considerable change in impedance value upon the binding of HS-Van molecules onto the electrode surface. Atomic Force Microscopy analysis indicated that SPGE was successfully modified upon the treatment with HS-Van molecules based on the shift in surface roughness from 173 ± 2 nm to 301 ± 3 nm. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) spectroscopy proved the EIS and AFM results as well by showing characteristic peaks of immobilized HS-Van molecule. As a proof-of-concept, EIS-based susceptibility testing was performed using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium smegmatis bacteria to prove the specificity of obtained SPGE-Van. EIS data showed that the charge transfer resistance (Rct) values changed from 1.08, 1.18 to 26.5, respectively, indicating that vancomycin susceptible S. aureus was successfully attached onto SPGE-Van surface strongly, while vancomycin resistance E. coli and M. smegmatis did not show any significant attachment properties. In addition, different concentration (108-10 CFU/mL) of S. aureus was performed to investigate sensitivity of proposed sensor platform. Limit of detection and limit of quantitation was calculated as 101.58 and 104.81 CFU/mL, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis also confirmed that only S. aureus bacteria was attached to the surface in a dense monolayer distribution. We believe that the proposed approach is selective and sensitive towards the whole-cell detection of vancomycin-susceptible bacteria and can be modified for different purposes in the future.