Copyright © 2019 Via MedicaBackground: The objective of this study was to investigate whether long term formaldehyde inhalation may affect periodontal membrane and alveolar bone loss leading to periodontitis. The negative effects of formaldehyde were described using vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metallopeptidase 2 (MMP-2) and osteonectin antibodies involved in the extracellular matrix and angiogenetic development. Materials and methods: Thirty adult Wistar albino rats were used in this study. Rats were divided into two groups: a control group (n = 15) and formaldehyde administered group (n = 15). Formaldehyde group was exposed to inhalation of 10 ppm formaldehyde 8 hours a day, 5 days a week for 5 weeks. Maxillary bone regions were dissected under anaesthesia. After fixation in 10% formaldehyde solution, tissues were passed through graded ethanol series to obtain paraffin blocks. Five-micrometre histological sections were cut with RM2265 rotary microtome stained with Masson trichrome and VEGF, MMP-2 and osteonectin antibodies for examination under Olympus BH-2 light microscopy. Results: The present study revealed that congestion in blood vessels, degeneration of collagen fibres and alveolar matrix around alveolar bone were observed to be more significant in formaldehyde group than the control group (p ≤ 0.001). Interestingly, VEGF expression in the formaldehyde group was the most significant finding between the two groups (p < 0.001). When compared inflammation, MMP-2 and osteonectin expressions were significant (p < 0.01) in the formaldehyde group. Conclusions: It was suggested that formaldehyde toxicity decreased the expression of MMP-2 and in osteoblasts as well as affecting the retention of MMP levels in tooth cavity, which is very low in collagen fibres. But, vice versa for the expression of VEGF in dilated vascular endothelial cells and osteocytes in alveolar bone. As a conclusion, formaldehyde disrupts the periodontal membrane and may cause collagen fibres degeneration by affecting the alveolar bone matrix.