Evaluation of 44 pediatric measles cases detected in Ankara, Turkey during 2012-2013 epidemic and molecular characterization of the viruses obtained from two cases 2012-2013 kizamik salgini sürecinde Ankara'da saptanan 44 çocuk olgunun deǧerlendirilmesi ve iki olgudan elde edilen viruslarin moleküler analizi

Metin Ö., Tanir G., Nur Öz F., Kalaycioǧlu A. T., Yolbakan S., Tuygun N., ...More

Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni, vol.48, no.2, pp.259-270, 2014 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 48 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2014
  • Doi Number: 10.5578/mb.7024
  • Journal Name: Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, TR DİZİN (ULAKBİM)
  • Page Numbers: pp.259-270
  • Keywords: Elimination, Measles, Outbreak, Turkey, Vaccine
  • Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University Affiliated: Yes


Elimination of measles and rubella until the end of 2015 in parallel with the "World Health Organization (WHO) Europe Region's Measles Elimination" work-up has been targetted and "Measles Elimination Program" has been carried out since 2002 in Turkey. Due to the routine vaccination programmes the number of the vaccinated children have increased and epidemic incidences have been falling. However, imported measles cases from Europe and other neighboring countries have been observed in Turkey in the recent two years. Patients who applied to Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children's Training and Research Hospital with a pre-diagnosis of measles between December 2012 and April 2013 were screened in this study. Seventy-eight patients who match the clinical definition of the disease (> 38°C fever and maculopapular rash and cough or nasal discharge or conjunctivitis) were evaluated. Forty-four children (25 male, 19 female; age range: 4-191 months, mean age: 58.6 ± 59.5 months) with a positive measles IgM test result were taken into consideration and the epidemiological and clinical features of these children were evaluated. In addition to fever and rash, cough, nasal discharge and conjunctivitis were seen in 36 (82%), 24 (55%), and 18 (41%) patients, respectively. Thirty five (80%) patients were diagnosed in December, 6 (14%) in January, 2 (4%) in February, and 1 (2%) in March. All patients included in the study were unvaccinated or too young to be vaccinated according to the routine vaccination calendar. The Index case was a three-year old unvaccinated girl who had a history of contact with the Syrian neighborhoods. During the study period; following contact with the index case, two doctors (born in 1986 with a history of single dose of vaccination at ninth month) and three children (without vaccination) were also diagnosed as measles. Eight (18%) patients were hospitalized because of complications. Four (50%) of them had pneumonia and the other four (50%) had lack of oral feeding and dehydration. Average duration of hospitalization for patients was 4 ± 1.7 (range: 2-6) days and all patients were discharged with full recovery. For molecular typing, viral RNAs were isolated from urine samples of two of the measles IgM positive patients, subjected to sequence analysis of 450 nucleotides comprising the most variable C-terminal region of the nucleoprotein (N) gene. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that those two strains belonged to genotype D8. This study represented the involvement of measles virus genotype D8 in an outbreak in Turkey for the first time. During a measles epidemic, following the index case; medical personnel should be informed about possible, probable, and definite case definitions and should apply for appropriate triage or fast-track (rapidly examination) if necessary, and routine announcements should be made precisely and accurately at proper times and unvaccinated medical personnel and any people in touch with the patient should be vaccinated. In order to reach the elimination goal declared by European WHO for 2015, susceptible populations should be identified and vaccinated in Turkey to obtain sufficient herd immunity for preventing outbreaks.