Smart parking systems: Reviewing the literature, architecture and ways forward

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BIYIK C. , Allam Z., Pieri G., Moroni D., O’fraifer M., O’connell E., ...More

Smart Cities, vol.4, no.2, pp.623-642, 2021 (Refereed Journals of Other Institutions) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 4 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/smartcities4020032
  • Title of Journal : Smart Cities
  • Page Numbers: pp.623-642
  • Keywords: Architecture, IoT, Layers, Smart cities, Smart parking systems


© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.The Internet of Things (IoT) has come of age, and complex solutions can now be imple-mented seamlessly within urban governance and management frameworks and processes. For cities, growing rates of car ownership are rendering parking availability a challenge and lowering the quality of life through increased carbon emissions. The development of smart parking solutions is thus necessary to reduce the time spent looking for parking and to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The principal role of this research paper is to analyze smart parking solutions from a technical perspective, underlining the systems and sensors that are available, as documented in the literature. The review seeks to provide comprehensive insights into the building of smart parking solutions. A holistic survey of the current state of smart parking systems should incorporate the classification of such systems as big vehicular detection technologies. Finally, communication modules are presented with clarity.