© 2021 Elsevier Inc.Purpose: To assess the relationship between MP and coexisting non-neoplastic disorders. Methods: Consecutive abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans of 4674 patients were evaluated retrospectively for CT features of MP between January 2017 and January 2018. Clinical findings of patients were analyzed. Four control patients were selected from our cohort for each MP patient such that they matched for age, gender and CT protocol. Statistical analysis was performed using a t, Mann–Whitney U, χ2, or Fisher's test. Results: 976 patients were excluded from the study due to the exclusion criteria and finally, 102/3698 patients were diagnosed with MP (mean age = 57.2 ± 12.5 years, 52% male). On CT, a hyperattenuated fatty mass (120/120), subcentimeter lymph nodes (117/120), congregation of mesenteric vessels (82/120) within the mass, a fat halo sign (28/120) and a pseudocapsule (88/120) were seen at the mesentery.The intra-observer agreement was almost perfect for the fatty mass and lymph nodes and moderate or substantial for other CT features (p < 0.001). The most prominent disorders were metabolic syndrome (MetS) and urogenital diseases in MP (45%, 37%, respectively) and control groups (31%, 26%, respectively). Between groups, no significant differences were found in the history of abdominal surgery, gastrointestinal and autoimmune diseases (p-value range 0.064–0.663); however, significant differences were found in the rates of vascular, urogenital diseases and MetS (p-value range 0.012–0.036). Conclusion: MetS and urolithiasis were significantly more common in patients with MP than in those without MP. Therefore, there may be a clinically relevant association between these disorders. MetS may be a risk factor for MP and urolithiasis, and treatment of metabolic disorders should be undertaken to prevent these diseases.