Physical growth of patients with hereditary tyrosinaemia type I: A single-centre retrospective study

Creative Commons License

Yilmaz O., Daly A., Pinto A., Ashmore C., Evans S., Gupte G., ...More

Nutrients, vol.13, no.9, 2021 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 13 Issue: 9
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/nu13093070
  • Journal Name: Nutrients
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, CINAHL, EMBASE, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, MEDLINE, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: tyrosinaemia, growth, physical outcomes, weight, height, BMI, phenylalanine, tyrosine, diet
  • Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University Affiliated: Yes


© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.In a retrospective review, we aimed to assess long-term growth in 17 patients (n = 11 males) with hereditary tyrosinaemia type I (HTI). Median age at assessment was 15.6 years (5.7–26.6 years) and median age at diagnosis was 1 month (range: 0–16 months), with 35% (n = 6/17) symptomatic on presentation. From the age of 8 years, there was a noticeable change in median height, weight, and body-mass-index [BMI]-z-scores. Median height-for-age z-scores were consistently ≤ −1 (IQR −1.6, −0.5) during the first 8 years of life but increased with age. Weight-for-age z-scores ranged between −1 to 0 (IQR −1.2, 0.1) in the first 8 years; then increased to > 0.5 (IQR −0.3, 1.3) by age 16 years, and BMI-for-age z-scores ranged from 0 to 1 (IQR −0.7, 1.3) up to 8 years, and >1 (IQR −0.2, 1.9) until 16 years. The percentage of overweight and obesity was lowest in children aged < 5 years, and consistently > 40% in patients aged between 7 to 16 years. The prescribed total protein intake was associated with improved height growth. Impaired growth in early life improved with age achieving normal population standards. Further studies are needed to investigate factors that influence growth outcome in HTI patients.