© 2021, Turkish National Pediatric Society. All rights reserved.Background. This study is aimed to recognize families who have neglected their children in the early period, to raise awareness among experts especially pediatricians-working in this field about the reasons contributing to the neglect. Methods. For this purpose, data were collected by quantitative and qualitative methods. The mothers of 32 neglected children and 30 children who were not neglected were included in to the study. Sociodemographic Information Form, Neglect Assessment Tool, Close Relationships Inventory, Perceived Social Support Scale, Marital Adjustment Scale, Childhood Trauma Survey Scale, Semi Structured Interview Form, SCID I and SCID II were used as data collection tools. T-test, ANOVA, Chi-square test, Kruskal Wallis, Pearson Correlation test were used for quantitative analysis and descriptive analysis method was used in the analysis of qualitative data. Results. In the quantitative findings obtained; mothers of neglected children and control group mothers differed in terms of their age, income perceptions, multidimensional perceived social support, marital adjustment, physical and emotional abuse subscales on the scale of childhood abuse, adult attachment patterns, however; it was found that there was no difference in terms of mental illness and personality disorder, and scores on sexual abuse subscale of child abuse. Qualitative results demonstrated that most of the mothers did not consider themselves adequate for parenting, were not satisfied with their parenting role, had insufficient emotional investment in their children and could not balance their roles. Conclusions. It was concluded that the mothers of neglected children had problems in the areas of social support, marital adjustment, adult attachment patterns and they were also exposed to physical and emotional abuse during their own childhood and these problems negatively affected the quality of their childcare. For this reason, it is important to provide support to neglectful families and family interventions should be established.