© 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature B.V.Purpose: Graves’ orbitopathy (GO) is an inflammatory process that may involve the ocular surface, orbital fat, extraocular muscles, and optic nerves in patients with Graves’ disease (GD). We aimed to compare thicknesses of retinal layers in patients with GD with and without GO. Methods: One hundred seven patients with GD [23 with GO (Group 1), 84 without GO (Group 2)] and eighteen volunteers (Group 3) were enrolled. The spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) was used for ophthalmologic evaluation. Seven retinal layers including retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL), ganglion cell layer (GCL), inner plexiform layer (IPL), inner nuclear layer (INL), outer plexiform layer (OPL), outer nuclear layer (ONL), retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) were assessed. The thicknesses of layers were compared in groups. Results: The median GCL thickness values in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 14 µm, 15 µm, and 17.5 µm, respectively (p = 0.02). The median IPL thickness was 20 µm in group 1, 21 µm in group 2, and 22 µm in group 3 (p = 0.038). The median RPE thickness values in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 16 µm, 17 µm, and 18.5 µm, respectively (p = 0.001). GCL in group 1 was thinner than in group 3 (p = 0.02), while similar in groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.06). IPL in group 1 was thinner than in group 3 (p = 0.035), while similar in groups 2 and 3 (p = 0.13). RPE in groups 1 and 2 was thinner than in group 3 (p = 0.009, p = 0.001, respectively), while it was similar in groups 1 and 2 (p = 0.93). RNLF, INL, OPL, ONL were similar in all three (p > 0.05 for each). Conclusion: Ganglion cell layer and IPL were thinner in patients with GO than in healthy controls, while both were similar in patients without GO and healthy controls. RPE was thinner in all Graves patients than in healthy controls. Early detection of changes in retinal layers of GD may guide the physician to prevent significant vision problems.