Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) and HBO preconditioning (pre-HBO) on experimental wound healing and tensile strength in the colonic anastomosis of rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 21 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three random groups of equal numbers: sham operation, pre-HBO, and HBO. Sham group was given standard left colon resection and end-to-end anastomosis; pre-HBO group received HBO as one dose + colonic resection + anastomosis; HBO group was given colonic resection + anastomosis + HBO. HBO was administrated at 24-hr intervals and relaparatomy was performed on the fifth day. Malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), interleukin (IL)-10, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and hydroxy (OH)-proline levels and anastomotic burst pressure were evaluated. Results: Burst pressure and OH-proline levels markedly increased in the HBO group compared with the sham and pre-HBO groups. When compared with the sham group, MDA and MPO levels were significantly decreased in the HBO and pre-HBO groups. In contrast to these findings, SOD and GSH-Px levels were increased in the HBO group as compared with the sham and pre-HBO groups. TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-10 values were detected at low levels in the HBO group as compared with other groups. Conclusions: HBO administration accelerated wound healing and strengthened the anastomotic tissue. In the light of these results, the HBO administration has beneficial effects and contributed to wound healing in colonic anastomosis. But, as expected, pre-HBO did not alter the results significantly.