Microbial Communities in Home-Made and Commercial Kefir and Their Hypoglycemic Properties

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YILMAZ B., ELİBOL E., Shangpliang H. N. J., ÖZOĞUL F., Tamang J. P.

Fermentation, vol.8, no.11, 2022 (SCI-Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 8 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/fermentation8110590
  • Journal Name: Fermentation
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Food Science & Technology Abstracts, INSPEC, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: animal studies, human studies, hypoglycemic, Kefir, Lactobacillus, metagenomics, probiotics, T2DM
  • Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University Affiliated: Yes


© 2022 by the authors.Kefir is a popular traditional fermented dairy product in many countries. It has a complex and symbiotic culture made up of species of the genera Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, and Acetobacter, as well as Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens and Lentilactobacillus kefiri. Though kefir has been commercialized in some countries, people are still traditionally preparing kefir at the household level. Kefir is known to have many nutritious values, where its consistent microbiota has been identified as the main valuable components of the product. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a common diet-related disease and has been one of the main concerns in the world’s growing population. Kefir has been shown to have promising activities in T2DM, mostly via hypoglycemic properties. This review aims to explain the microbial composition of commercial and home-made kefir and its possible effects on T2DM. Some studies on animal models and human clinical trials have been reviewed to validate the hypoglycemic properties of kefir. Based on animal and human studies, it has been shown that consumption of kefir reduces blood glucose, improves insulin signaling, controls oxidative stress, and decreases progression of diabetic nephropathy. Moreover, probiotic bacteria such as lactic-acid bacteria and Bifidobacterium spp. and their end-metabolites in turn directly or indirectly help in controlling many gut disorders, which are also the main biomarkers in the T2DM condition and its possible treatment.