© 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel. Copyright: All rights reserved.Introduction: Patients with AA amyloidosis may present with acute kidney injury that progresses to end-stage kidney disease in a short period of time. Acute allergic tubulointerstitial nephritis (aTIN) is a frequent cause of acute kidney injury in patients with AA amyloidosis. Although aTIN has a favorable prognosis in the general population, the course of aTIN in patients with AA amyloidosis was not previously reported. In this retrospective study, we determined the prognosis of aTIN superimposed on AA amyloidosis. Methods: Thirty-two patients with combined pathological diagnosis of AA amyloidosis + aTIN and 32 patients with isolated aTIN were compared in terms of 1-year renal functions after the biopsies were performed with an indication of acute kidney injury. Baseline renal functions and number of patients requiring hemodialysis at the time of biopsy was similar in both groups. Results: At the end of the 12-month follow-up period, 29 of 32 patients in the amyloidosis + aTIN group and 1 of 32 patients in the isolated aTIN group required dialysis. Most of these patients with AA amyloidosis had completely normal renal function before the episode of acute kidney injury and had clear exposures to drugs associated with aTIN. Conclusion: In contrary to the patients without AA amyloidosis, patients with AA amyloidosis have extremely high risk of permanent renal failure in case of development of aTIN. Great caution should be exercised in prescribing drugs that are associated with aTIN, in patients with AA amyloidosis.