The stromal vascular fraction (SVF) obtained from inguinal adipose tissue was injected into the sciatic nerve region in diabetic rats. The effects of the SVF on the sciatic nerve and functional, electrophysiological and histopathological changes were examined in this study. Rats were divided into five groups; a non-diabetic control group, and four diabetic groups. In the first diabetic rat group, the SVF was obtained from inguinal adipose tissue. The remaining diabetic groups included a sham control group, a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) injection group and an SVF injection group. Injections were made into the sciatic nerve region. Electromyography and walking track analyses were conducted on all groups at the beginning of the experiment. Diabetes was induced via a single dose of streptozotocin. Walking track analysis and electromyography measurements were repeated in week 8. SVF or PBS was injected into the right sciatic nerve region on week 8 of experiment group rats. Walking track analysis and electromyography were repeated in week 12 and all sciatic nerves were examined histopathologically. In the diabetic SVF group, the sciatic functional index calculated from walking track analysis in week 12 was better than week 8. Additionally, the myelin sheaths of the right sciatic nerve were thicker and more uniform and the nerve fibers were thicker than those of the left, untreated sciatic nerve. No statistical differences were detected in electromyographic measurements. The adipose-derived SVF may be beneficial for nerve regeneration in diabetic neuropathy.