A Heated Controversy in the Second/Eighth Century: Khalq al-Qurʾān (The Createdness of Qurʾān)

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Az M. A.

ULUM Journal of Religious Inquiries, vol.3, no.1, pp.43-61, 2020 (Refereed Journals of Other Institutions)

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 3 Issue: 1
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Title of Journal : ULUM Journal of Religious Inquiries
  • Page Numbers: pp.43-61


Throughout Islam’s theology, the issue of createdness of Qurʾān - which results from the discourse of the denial of divine attributes and which was first raised as a question by Jaʿd b. Dirham and followed by Jahm b. Ṣafwān and Bishr b. Ghiyāth al-Marīsī- has been one of the oldest debates raging within the Islamic scholarly circles. When political conspiracies were involved in the issue, the debate became even fiercer and led to bloodshed and torture among Muslim communities causing death to many eminent scholars in the 2nd/8th century. One of the reasons why all these debates did not reach a conclusion is that the concepts had not been sufficiently analyzed and the attribution of false or different meanings to the same concepts under discussion. Each sect or group attempted to resolve the issue within the framework of their own background, cultural structure and most importantly, their own principles. The different views put forward on the issue of createdness of Qurʾān are largely related to the kalām attribute, and it is based on the acceptance of the kalām as a essential (dhātī) and active (fi‘lī) attribute. Although the explanations are different, all sect or group accept that the Qurʾān is a divine book sent to people by God