ECG based human identification using Second Order Difference Plots

Altan G. , KUTLU Y., YENİAD M.

Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, vol.170, pp.81-93, 2019 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 170
  • Publication Date: 2019
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.01.010
  • Title of Journal : Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
  • Page Numbers: pp.81-93
  • Keywords: Biometric, ECG, Identification, PQRST complex, Second Order Difference Plot, SODP


© 2019 Elsevier B.V.Background and objective: ECG is one of the biometric signals that has been studied in peer-reviewed over past years. The developments on the signal analysis methods show that the studies on the ECG would continue unabatedly. It has a common use on cardiac diseases with high rates of classification performances by integrating it with signal analysis methods. The aim of the study is to utilize the ECG for human identification. Methods: Second Order Difference Plot (SODP) is a non-linear time-series analysis method that allows determining the features using the statistical analysis of the wave distributions. The SODP features were extracted using different quantification methods for ECG-based human identification. A new quantification approach has been proposed on the SODP for ECG-based human identification. The proposed method, Logarithmic Grid Analysis, was compared with the existing quantification methods on the SODP. The region of the SODP was divided into sub-regions with logarithmically increasing distances and the numbers of data points in each logarithmic sub regions were calculated in the proposed method. Three different databases were used to test the validity of the method. These records have been tested with the conventional feature extraction methods on the SODP. The long-term ECG signals were divided into 5-s short-term ECG signals. Results: The Logarithmic Grid Analysis features that were counted from short-time ECG signals were classified with k-Nearest Neighbor algorithm using 10-fold cross validation, and the identification performance of the proposed model was evaluated. Consequently, high accuracy rates of 91.96%, 99.86% and 95.12% were achieved on ECG-based human identification using the Logarithmic Grid Analysis method on the SODP. Conclusions: The density score of data points at the center of the SODP is too high. This case increases the importance of the regions close the center in order to find the detailed and significant features from the SODP. The number of data points at the center has been extracted in more detail and the vertex areas of the major axes of the SODP can be interpreted in the aggregate sub-regions by using logarithmically increasing distances with a small number of feature size.