Antiproliferative Effects of Vitamin K2 in Osteosarcoma Cells: Comparison of Different Cytotoxicity Analyzes


Süleyman Demirel Üniversitesi Tıp Fakültesi Dergisi, vol.30, no.1, pp.1-8, 2023 (Peer-Reviewed Journal) identifier



Objective The aim of this study was to compare four commonly used cytotoxicity assays (XTT, neutral red uptake, crystal violet assay, and propidium iodide staining) which analyzed the antiproliferative effects of vitamin K2. Material and Method Saos-2 cells, an osteosarcoma cell line, were exposed to vitamin K2 at different concentrations (10 μM, 20 μM, 30 μM, 40 μM, 50 μM, 100 μM, and 200 μM) for 48 and 72 hours. Tetrazolium salt test (XTT), neutral red uptake (NR) assay, crystal violet assay, and propidium iodide (PI) staining were performed to determine the cytotoxic potential of vitamin K2 in terms of the cell viability and IC50 values. The results were evaluated with one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the Tukey test. Results Cytotoxic effects of vitamin K2 on osteosarcoma cells were analyzed with XTT, neutral red, crystal violet assay, and propidium iodide, respectively. IC50 values were determined exposure to 61.93; 40.21; 62.11; 70.57 μM vitamin K2 for 48 and 75.44; 68.22; 41.66; 88.01 μM vitamin K2 for 72 hours. Conclusion Statistical analysis revealed that there is a significant statistical difference between the four tests used in this study. In addition, it was determined that the viability rates in propidium iodide staining were higher than other tests for cytotoxicity analyses. It has been concluded that incubations at different concentrations were required to prevent misinterpretation of results in cytotoxicity analyses, and tetrazolium salt-based tests should be supplemented with other non-metabolic tests.

Keywords: Cell viability tests, In vitro cytotoxicity, Osteosarcoma, Vitamin K