© 2020 Turkish Society of Cardiovascular Surgery.Background: This study aims to compare the results of the open surgical approach versus endobronchial conical stent application in the treatment of extensive fistulas. Methods: Between December 2004 and April 2016, a total of 36 patients (34 males, 2 females; mean age 59.6±8.1 years; range, 40 to 72 years) with a bronchopleural fistula of ≥8 mm in diameter and underwent either conventional open surgery with stump-supported intercostal muscle flap or endobronchial ultra-flex expandable stenting were retrospectively analyzed. The demographic and clinical characteristics of the patients, operative data including the length of hospital stay, thoracic drainage time, and early mortality, and survival data were recorded. Results: The mean hospitalization time was 17.4±4.5 days for the bronchoscopic group and 22.5±6.7 days for the invasive surgery group (p=0.026). The median time to removal of thoracic drains was 15 (range, 10 to 30) days for the bronchoscopic group and 26 (range, 14 to 55) days for the surgical group (p=0.027). Early mortality rates of both approaches were in favor of the bronchoscopic approach (χ2=7.058; p=0.008). Two-year survival rate was 76.47% (n=13) in the bronchoscopic group and 70% (n=7) in the surgical group. There was no statistically significant difference in the survival rates between the two groups (χ2=0.132; p=0.716). Conclusion: Our study results suggest that bronchoscopic approach can be the first choice in the treatment algorithm of fistulas with a diameter of ≥8 mm presenting with empyema in selected cases.