Anomalies Prediction in Radon Time Series for Earthquake Likelihood Using Machine Learning-Based Ensemble Model


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Mir A. A. , ÇELEBİ F. V. , Alsolai H., Qureshi S. A. , Rafique M., Alzahrani J. S. , ...More

IEEE Access, vol.10, pp.37984-37999, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 10
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1109/access.2022.3163291
  • Title of Journal : IEEE Access
  • Page Numbers: pp.37984-37999
  • Keywords: Automated system, earthquakes, ensemble methods, percentage bias, soil radon gas

Abstract

© 2013 IEEE.The ability to predict the radioactive soil radon gas concentration is important for human beings because it serves as a precursor to earthquakes. Several studies have been conducted across the globe to confirm the correlation of radon emission dynamics and earthquakes, and concluded that the soil radon gas is the witness of anomalous behaviour before the occurrences of several earthquakes. This anomalous behavior can help to construct a better prediction model for earthquake forecasting. This paper aims at employing different ensemble and individual machine learning methods on real time radon time series data with different scenarios to predict anomalies in data caused by the seismic activities.The ensemble methods include boosted tree, bagged cart and boosted linear model while standalone machine learning methods include support vector machine with linear and radial kernels and k-nearest neighbors (K-NN). We tested the methods on a dataset recorded on the fault line located in Muzaffarabad. Time series data was collected over a period ranging from March 1, 2017 to May 11, 2018 including nine(09) earthquakes. The methods are tested in four different settings with 10 times 10 folds cross validation procedure over the time window of 1 to 4. The repeated 10 fold cross validation is performed to reduce the noise in the model performance estimation by replicating the 10 fold cross validation procedure 10 times. Statistical performance evaluation measures viz. root mean square error (RMSE), root mean squared log error (RMSLE), mean absolute percentage error (MAPE), percentage bias (PB), and mean squared error (MSE) have been calculated for the assessment of performance. In setting 1, the support vector machine with radial kernel performs better with the minimum RMSE score of 1381.023 when compared to other prediction models. In setting 3, it can be observed through different performance metrics such as RMSE, the value in the range [1262.864, 1409.616] which is minimum when other prediction models for predicting soil radon gas concentration dataset. For setting 4, the boosted tree model yielded the minimum RMSE and MAPE scores of 1573.174 and 0.056 respectively. Findings of the study shows that boosted tree and support vector machine with radial kernel proved to be better regression models for the prediction of anomalies in soil radon gas concentration during seismic activities. An important finding of this study suggests that by employing boosted tree ensemble method make us able to accurately predict soil radon gas concentration automatically from environmental parameters.