Antimicrobial Multidrug Resistance: Clinical Implications for Infection Management in Critically Ill Patients

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Kalın G., Alp E., Chouaikhi A., Roger C.

Microorganisms, vol.11, no.10, 2023 (SCI-Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Review
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 10
  • Publication Date: 2023
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/microorganisms11102575
  • Journal Name: Microorganisms
  • Journal Indexes: Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-EXPANDED), Scopus, Agricultural & Environmental Science Database, BIOSIS, CAB Abstracts, Veterinary Science Database, Directory of Open Access Journals
  • Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, difficult to treat pathogens, ICU, sepsis
  • Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt University Affiliated: Yes


The increasing incidence of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) worldwide represents a serious threat in the management of sepsis. Due to resistance to the most common antimicrobials prescribed, multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens have been associated with delays in adequate antimicrobial therapy leading to significant increases in mortality, along with prolonged hospital length of stay (LOS) and increases in healthcare costs. In response to MDR infections and the delay of microbiological results, broad-spectrum antibiotics are frequently used in empirical antimicrobial therapy. This can contribute to the overuse and misuse of antibiotics, further promoting the development of resistance. Multiple measures have been suggested to combat AMR. This review will focus on describing the epidemiology and trends concerning MDR pathogens. Additionally, it will explore the crucial aspects of identifying patients susceptible to MDR infections and optimizing antimicrobial drug dosing, which are both pivotal considerations in the fight against AMR. Expert commentary: The increasing AMR in ICUs worldwide makes the empirical antibiotic therapy challenging in septic patients. An AMR surveillance program together with improvements in MDR identification based on patient risk stratification and molecular rapid diagnostic tools may further help tailoring antimicrobial therapies and avoid unnecessary broad-spectrum antibiotics. Continuous infusions of antibiotics, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM)-based dosing regimens and combination therapy may contribute to optimizing antimicrobial therapy and limiting the emergence of resistance.