© Başkent University 2022 Printed in Turkey. All Rights Reserved.Objectives: Posttransplant bone diseases are a major cause of morbidity in kidney transplant recipients. We investigated the relationship between klotho gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms and bone diseases after kidney transplant. We also aimed to identify possible risk factors for development of bone disease. Materials and Methods: The study consisted of 251 kidney transplant recipients (164 men and 87 women) with minimum follow-up of 3 years after kidney transplant. Patients with prolonged immobilization, malignancy, parathyroidectomy, glomerular filtration rates less than 30 mL/min/1.73 m2, hypo-or hyperthyroidism, and treatment with drugs that affect bone metabolism were excluded. We investigated the relationship between 6 single-nucleotide polymor-phisms of the klotho gene (rs480780, rs211234, rs576404, rs211235, rs9536314, and rs1207568) and development of osteoporosis, avascular bone necrosis, and persistent hyperparathyroidism. Results: Longer dialysis treatment (odds ratio, 1.13; P = .002) and rs211235 single-nucleotide polymor-phism in the klotho gene (odds ratio, 9.87; P = .001 for GG genotype) were significantly associated with persistent hyperparathyroidism. A higher magnesium level was detected as a protective factor from development of persistent hyperparathyroidism (odds ratio, 0.19; P = .009). Persistent hyperparathyroidism was defined as a risk factor for development of osteopenia/osteoporosis (odds ratio, 2.76; P = .003) and avascular bone necrosis (odds ratio, 2.52; P = .03). Although the rs480780 (odds ratio, 8.73; P = .04) single-nucleotide polymorphism in the klotho gene was defined as a risk factor for development of osteopenia/osteoporosis, none of the klotho single-nucleotide polymorphisms was found to be associated with development of avascular bone necrosis. Conclusions: Persistent hyperparathyroidism could be an important indicator for development of bone disease in kidney transplant recipients. Also, some of the klotho gene single-nucleotide polymorphisms are associated with higher risk for bone disease after kidney transplant.