© Copyright 2020 by Turkish Surgical Society.Objective: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of thymoquinone on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury at 150 min or/and 24 h of reperfusion in male Wistar Rats. Material and Methods: The therapeutic value of thymoquinone on cellular damage caused by reactive oxygene species or inflammatory processes during intestinal ischemia/reperfusion was investigated using pharmacological function studies on smooth muscle contractile responses of acetylcholine (Ach) and KCl, along with myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyhde, glutathione and cytokine levels such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in serum and ileum tissue of rats. Thymoquinone was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg orally for three times: 30 min, 24 h and 48 h prior to the surgical procedure. Soon after reperfusion timing (150 min or 24 h), the contractility traces to KCl and acetylcholine of the ileum smooth muscle were recorded through isolated organ bath. Results: Pretreatment with thymoquinone reversed the disrupted contractility of the ileum smooth muscle at the 24 h reperfusion. Increased malondialdehyde and depleted glutathione levels and high myeloperoxidase activity determined in the ileum I/R tissue returned to reasonable amounts by pretreatment of Thymoquinone, which attenuated malondialdehyde quantity, restored glutathione level and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity. In addition, both serum and tissue TNF-α and IL-1β activities were modulated by thymoquinone at 24 h of intestinal I/R. Conclusion: The results indicate that thymoquinone may have therapeutic value due to its immunomodulating, radical scavenging and/or antioxidant effects in intestinal I/R injury including oxidant damage mechanisms.