© 2018 Elsevier LtdThrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) are rare, but life-threatening disorders characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia and thrombocytopenia (MAHAT) associated with multiorgan dysfunction as a result of microvascular thrombosis and tissue ischemia. The differentiation of the etiology is of utmost importance as the pathophysiological basis will dictate the choice of appropriate treatment. We retrospectively evaluated 154 (99 females and 55 males) patients who received therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) due to a presumptive diagnosis of TMA, who had serum ADAMTS13 activity/anti-ADAMTS13 antibody analysis at the time of hospital admission. The median age of the study cohort was 36 (14-84). 67 (43.5%), 32 (20.8%), 27 (17.5%) and 28 (18.2%) patients were diagnosed as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), infection/complement-associated hemolytic uremic syndrome (IA/CA-HUS), secondary TMA and TMA-not otherwise specified (TMA-NOS), respectively. Patients received a median of 18 (175) plasma volume exchanges for 14 (153) days. 81 (52.6%) patients received concomitant steroid therapy with TPE. Treatment responses could be evaluated in 137 patients. 90 patients (65.7%) achieved clinical remission following TPE, while 47 (34.3%) patients had non-responsive disease. 25 (18.2%) non-responsive patients died during follow-up. Our study present real-life data on the distribution and follow-up of patients with TMAs who were referred to therapeutic apheresis centers for the application of TPE.