© 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.Background and Aim: Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a common presentation for emergency departments. This study investigates the diagnostic value of oxidative stress and ischemia markers in patients with PD. Materials and Methods: The participants were classified into the PD group (patients with PD) and the control group (healthy volunteers). Thiol/Disulfide Homeostasis (TDH) parameters (Ds, Disulfide; NT, Native Thiol; TT, Total Thiol) and serum ischemia modified albumin (IMA) levels of the groups were measured. The Numeric Rating Scale (NRS) was used for pain assessment. Bivariate correlation analysis was performed to test the relationship between NRS and oxidative stress parameters. A P < 0.05 was considered significant. Results: A total of 135 patients (PD group, n = 83; Control group, n = 52) were included in the study. PD group had statistically higher oxidant biomarkers (Ds level, Ds/NT ratio and Ds/TT ratio) and lower antioxidant biomarkers (NT/TT ratio) compared to the control group (p = 0.001; 0.003; 0.002, and 0.002, respectively). Serum IMA level in the PD group was higher than in the control group (P = 0.000). There was a positive correlation between IMA and NRS score (r = 0.342, P < 0.01), but no correlation was found between the other oxidative stress parameters and NRS. Conclusions: PD is characterized by increased oxidative stress and ischemia in the endometrium, which can be detected by TDH parameters and serum IMA. NRS score in PD patients is positively correlated with serum IMA level, which suggests IMA level can be valuable to determine the severity of endometrial ischemia and pain in patients with PD.