The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of osteoporosis and associated risk factors in Turkish women aged 18-49 years. A population-based, cross-sectional study was conducted between January and April 2014. The sample (n = 1,792) was comprised of women aged 18-49 years, who resided in Cubuk, Ankara, Turkey, and were selected by simple random sampling. The data were collected in face-to-face interviews using an Individual Information Form and an Osteoporosis Risk Estimation Scale. Bone mineral density was assessed using standard dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Multiple logistic regression and chi-square analyses were used for analyses. Most participants (80.1%) were at low risk of developing osteoporosis, while 6.9% were at medium to high risk of developing the disease. From bone mineral density levels, 33.3% were osteopenic; 4.0% were osteoporotic; 33.3% were osteopenic at the femoral neck; and 6.7% were osteoporotic at the lumbar vertebra L1-L4. Further, results of multiple logistic regression analyses showed that osteoporosis risk was significantly associated with smoking, having light skin, multiparity, and having a family history of osteoporosis (p < .05). These results indicated that public health screening strategies for protecting women's bone health at earlier ages than previously thought might be beneficial.