© 2018 Elsevier Inc.Objectives: This study compared the fractal dimension (FD) and radiomorphometric indices in the assessment of mandibular bone of patients with type 1 (T1 DM) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2 DM). Study Design: Panoramic radiographs of 104 patients were evaluated to calculate FD, mandibular cortical width (MCW), panoramic mandibular index (PMI), and mandibular cortical index (MCI) in the mandible. Results: No statistically significant differences were found in FD when T1 DM and T2 DM groups were compared with controls (P ≥.168). Patients with T1 DM had significantly lower MCW (P <.001) and PMI (P =.030) compared with controls. Patients with T2 DM had no significant differences in MCW (P =.228) or PMI (P =.137) compared with controls. No significant differences were observed between patients with T1 DM and those with T2 DM for FD, MCW, and PMI (P >.05). In the T1 DM and T2 DM groups, there was a significant correlation between MCW and FD (P ≤.011). No correlation was observed between FD and PMI in either the T1 DM group or the T2 DM group (P ≥.142). No significant differences in MCI were observed between the DM groups and controls (P =.740) or between the T1 DM and T2 DM groups (P = 1.000). Conclusions: The cortical and trabecular bone architectures of patients with T1 DM and T2 DM were not different. Patients with T1 DM had lower cortical measurements compared with controls.