© TÜBİTAK.Background/aim: Bacteremia remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality during febrile neutropenia (FN) episodes. We aimed to define the risk factors for bacteremia in febrile neutropenic children with hemato-oncological malignancies. Materials and methods: The records of 150 patients aged ≤18 years who developed FN in hematology and oncology clinics were retrospectively evaluated. Patients with bacteremia were compared to patients with negative blood cultures. Results: The mean age of the patients was 7.5 ± 4.8 years. Leukemia was more prevalent than solid tumors (61.3% vs. 38.7%). Bacteremia was present in 23.3% of the patients. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most frequently isolated microorganism. Leukopenia, severe neutropenia, positive peripheral blood and central line cultures during the previous 3 months, presence of a central line, previous FN episode(s), hypotension, tachycardia, and tachypnea were found to be risk factors for bacteremia. Positive central line cultures during the previous 3 months and presence of previous FN episode(s) were shown to increase bacteremia risk by 2.4-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively. Conclusion: Presence of a bacterial growth in central line cultures during the previous 3 months and presence of any previous FN episode(s) were shown to increase bacteremia risk by 2.4-fold and 2.5-fold, respectively. These factors can predict bacteremia in children with FN.