Background/Aims: A disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs (ADAMTS) enzymes take part in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling which has been shown to contribute to the ovulation and follicular functions. We aimed to compare serum levels of ADAMTS-19 inpatients with different fertility situations. Methods: A total of 86 women were enrolled to this cross sectional and case-control study. Four groups were constituted with respect towomen's clinical and hormonal status: group 1, women with premature ovarian failure (POF; n = 21); group 2, women with natural menopause (n = 21); group 3, women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS; n = 22); and group 4, healthy fertile controls. Serum ADAMTS-19 levels and individual characteristics were compared among groups. Results: ADAMTS-19 levels were found as 36.7 +/- 10.2, 40.1 +/- 12.6, 46.7 +/- 16.1, and 51.0 +/- 18.8 ng/mL in POF, fertile, natural menopause, and PCOS groups, respectively (p = 0.012). Especially, ADAMTS-19 levels in the PCOS group were significantly higher than the POF group, as found in dual comparisons (p = 0.010). Conclusions: ADAMTS-19 was found to be higher in PCOS patients than in POF patients. This work provides a novel vantage point for function of ECM within the ovary. ADAMTS-19 may have a potential for being an important marker of ovarian function and oocyte pool.