Ground granulated blast furnace slag (BFS) and fly ash (FA) are iron-making industry and power plant byproducts, respectively. Although their use in concrete is quite common, investigation of the effects of these inorganic compounds on polymer properties is quite new, and their use as fillers in polymer foam composites has not yet been really explored. Their properties, such as high electrical resistivity, make them a good asset for use in rigid polyurethane foams that are widely used for insulation. In this study, a comprehensive investigation of the effect of BFS and FA on morphology, electrical and thermal conductivity, and rheological and mechanical properties of water-blown rigid polyurethane foams was performed. The relationship between these properties was examined. A relative enhancement of the properties is observed for filled foams, especially up to the percolation threshold. The results highlight a noticeable effect of the electrical percolation threshold on the different properties of foams. (c) 2019 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2019, 136, 47433.