Objective: We aimed to investigate the frequency of oral yeast colonization (OYC) and the risk factors for patients who received continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) or hemodialysis (HD) or were renal transplant recipients (RTRs). The patients admitted to the Nephrology Clinic at Ataturk University Medical School from January through April 2013 were included in the study. A questionnaire about risk factors was filled out, and swab cultures were taken from the tongue surface of each participant. OYC was detected in 32.1% of the RTRs, 40% of the HD patients, 20.9% of the CAPD patients, and 18% of the healthy control (HC) group. Of the 42 yeast strains isolated from the renal replacement therapy groups, 26 strains (61.9%) were Candida albicans, nine (21.4%) were Candida glabrata, two (4.7%) were Candida krusei, two (4.7%) were Candida kefyr, one (2.38%) was Candida parapsilosis, and two (4.7%) were Geotrichum candidum. Risk factors for OYC in the RTRs group included antibiotic use and the presence of dental prostheses; however, in patients with chronic renal failure undergoing CAPD, only the presence of dental prostheses was found to be a statistically significant risk factor. Although OYC was mostly detected in patients with chronic kidney disease (undergoing HD, a variety of isolated yeast strains in the RTRs was noted. The rates of OYC and isolated Candida species in CAPD were similar to those of the HC group. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.