The effect of polar end of long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers in promoting the superamphiphobic property over multi-scale rough Al alloy surfaces

Saifaldeen Z. S. , Khedir K. R. , Camci M. T. , Ucar A. , Suzer S., Karabacak T.

Applied Surface Science, vol.379, pp.55-65, 2016 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 379
  • Publication Date: 2016
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.apsusc.2016.04.050
  • Title of Journal : Applied Surface Science
  • Page Numbers: pp.55-65


© 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Rough structures with re-entrant property and their subsequent surface energy reduction with long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers are both critical in developing superamphiphobic (SAP, i.e. both super hydrophobic and superoleophobic) surfaces. However, morphology of the low-surface energy layer on a rough re-entrant substrate can strongly depend on the fluorocarbon oligomers used. In this study, the effect of polar end of different kinds of long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers in promoting a self-assembled monolayer with close packed molecules and robust adhesion on multi-scale rough Al alloy surfaces was investigated. Hierarchical Al alloy surfaces with microgrooves and nanograss structures were developed by a simple combination of one-directional mechanical sanding and post treatment in boiling de-ionized water (DIW). Three types of long-chain fluorocarbon oligomers of 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltriethoxysilane (PFDTS), 1H, 1H, 2H, 2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (PFDCS), and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) were chemically vaporized onto these rough Al alloy surfaces. The PFDCS exhibited the lowest surface free energy of less than 10 mN/m. The contact angle and sliding angle measurements for water, ethylene glycol, and peanut oil verified the SAP property of hierarchical rough Al alloy surfaces treated with alkylsilane oligomers (PFDTS, PFDCS). However, the hierarchical surfaces treated with fluorocarbon oligomer with polar acidic tail (PFOA) showed highly amphiphobic properties but could not reach the threshold for SAP. Chemical stability of the hierarchical Al alloy surfaces treated with the fluorocarbon oligomers was tested under the harsh conditions of ultra-sonication in acetone and annealing at high temperature after different treatment times. Contact angle measurements revealed the robustness of the alkylsilane oligomers and deterioration of the PFOA coating particularly for low surface tension liquids. The robust adhesion and close-packing of the alkylsilane molecules as well as their vertical orientation with exposure of more CF 3 groups instead of CF 2 groups due to the polar silane-based tail are believed to be the main reasons behind their improved chemical stability. The selection of fluorocarbon oligomer with proper polar tail which can promote a self-assembled monolayer with close-packed molecules could make it possible for utilizing shorter fluorocarbon oligomers, which is environmentally favorable, to develop high surface energy materials with SAP properties.