© 2020 Elsevier Masson SASPurpose: Many complications during Le Fort I osteotomy are encountered during pterygomaxillary separation. The study aimed to evaluate the pterygomaxillary region in regards to the Le Fort I osteotomy using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Materials and methods: The CBCT images of 200 patients (100 males, 100 females) aged 18–78 years were evaluated measuring the thickness and width of the pterygomaxillary region, the location of the descending palatine artery, and the length of the pterygoid plates on the axial section. Results: It has been determined that the distance between the descending palatine canal and the priform rim is longer in males (P = 0.037). Medial plate was longer on the right (P = 0.0001) and left (P = 0.025) in females. The thickness of the pterygomaxillary region was longer in females (P = 0.000). The distance between the pterygomaxillary fissure and the descending palatine canal was longer on the right (P = 0.001). Conclusion: The pterygomaxillary region may have different anatomies that predispose to specific complications associated with Le Fort I osteotomy. Therefore, before surgery, the pterygomaxillary region should be examined with CBCT, and necessary precautions should be taken preoperatively considering the possible complications.