© 2021, The Author(s).We aimed to investigate the prevalence of postoperative hypoparathyroidism (PoH), the relevant factors, and predictors of transient or permanent hypoparathyroidism. The files of 352 patients who underwent bilateral total thyroidectomy alone or with central lymph node dissection and/or lateral neck dissection between June 1, 2019, and November 30, 2019, were retrospectively evaluated. Also, calcium and parathyroid hormone levels measured preoperatively and 4–6 h after surgery, follow-up examination results, and time to resolution of transient PoH were recorded. 16.48% (n = 58) of the surgical patients developed transient PoH and 3.98% (n = 14) developed permanent PoH. Length of hospital stay increased in patients who developed PoH (p < 0.001). Transient PoH developed less in patients who underwent parathyroid autotransplantation, while permanent PoH was not detected (p = 0.001). PoH development was not significantly correlated with nodule size as measured by preoperative thyroid ultrasonography (p = 0.944). Patients who had a serum PTH level ≤ 5.95 pmol/L 4–6 h after surgery had a greater risk of developing permanent PoH (OR 134.84, 95% CI 17.25–1053.82). PoH is more common in female gender and is not significantly correlated with nodule size. Parathyroid autotransplantation can prevent the development of PoH.