Clinical and radiological comparison of bioactive glass and poly-L-lactic acid/hydroxyapatite bioabsorbable interference screws for tibial graft fixation in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction


Veizi E., Alkan H., ÇAY N. , Şahin A., Çepni Ş., Tecimel O., ...More

Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research, 2022 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Publication Date: 2022
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.otsr.2022.103247
  • Title of Journal : Orthopaedics and Traumatology: Surgery and Research
  • Keywords: Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, Bioactive glass, Interference screw, Knee arthroscopy

Abstract

© 2022 Elsevier Masson SASBackground: Ligament reconstruction is still the main treatment modality for patients with a complete ligament rupture. The semitendinosus tendon, alone quadrupled or double folded and combined with the gracilis tendon, is still the most frequently used autologous graft for a reconstructive procedure. Absorbable interference screw usage has gained popularity in the past decade because they create less artifacts during MR imaging and tend to osteointegrate over the years, arguably leading to a more anatomic fixation. The purpose of this study was to compare the 5-year radiological and clinical results of two different tibial graft fixation screws. Hypothesis: We hypothesized that bioabsorbable interference screws made of bioactive glass would lead to higher rates of osteointegration, better overall clinical results, less foreign body reaction rates and less tibial tunnel widening when compared to the poly-L-lactic acid/hydroxyapatite (PLLA-HA) screws. Patients and methods: Fifty-one patients treated with an anatomic single bundle ACL reconstruction between June 2015 and July 2016 at our institution were included in the study. The tibial graft was fixed with a bioactive glass screw in 24, and with a PLLA-HA in 27 patients. Tibial tunnel widening, foreign body reaction, osteointegration and resorption rates were evaluated and compared on a magnetic resonance scan at a minimum of 5 year postoperatively. Overall clinical results and side-to-side difference on KT-1000 were also analyzed in-between groups. Results: Tibial tunnel widening was similar for both groups. Foreign body reaction, while not statistically significant, was less aggressive when bioactive glass screws were used. Osteointegration and resorption rates of the bioactive glass screws were significantly higher than the PLLA-HA group (p = 0.000). While all patients showed an overall improvement on postoperative scores (p = 0.000), patients with a bioactive glass interference screw had statistically higher translational stability with KT-1000, compared to the poly-L-lactic acid/hydroxyapatite group (p = 0.001). Discussion: At a minimum of 5 years, compared to conventional PLLA-HA interference screws, 45S5 bioactive glass screw provide higher resorption rates, are more highly biodegradable and provide overall good clinical results. Level of evidence: III.