© 2021 Dustri-Verlag Dr. Karl Feistle. All rights reserved.Aims: Severe reduction in nephron numbers that are characteristic of renal hypodysplasia (RHD) are one of the cause of childhood chronic kidney disease (CKD). Glomerular hyperfiltration, glomerular hypertrophy, progressive glomerular scarring, and interstitial fibrosis due to reduced nephron number are risk factors for CKD. In recent years, studies on specific markers for early diagnosis of renal failure and mortality have been carried out. The objectives of this study were to identify serum and urinary endocan levels that are expressed in glomerular endothelial cells and tubular epithelial cells in RHD. Materials and methods: 29 children with RHD were compared to 26 healthy controls in terms of serum and urinary endocan levels. Results: The mean serum endocan level in the RHD group and the control group was 700.72 ± 323.19 and 426.86 ± 233.14 pg/mL, respectively. The mean serum endocan level was significantly higher (p = 0.003) in the RHD group. The mean urinary endocan level in the RHD group was 63.62 ± 92.46 pg/mL, and in the control group it was 80.26 ± 142.49 pg/mL. The mean urinary endocan level did not change between groups (p = 0.95). There was also a significant correlation between serum endocan level and uric acid level in the study group (r = 0.325, p = 0.028). Conclusion: To our knowledge, this was the first study that evaluated serum and urinary endocan levels in children with RHD. Although serum endocan level was found to be significantly higher in patients with RHD, further studies are needed to validate whether endocan could serve as a marker of poor renal prognosis in RHD.