A novel hybrid learning system using modified breaking ties algorithm and multinomial logistic regression for classification and segmentation of hyperspectral images


Shah S. T. H. , Qureshi S. A. , Rehman A. U. , Shah S. A. H. , Amjad A., Mir A. A. , ...More

Applied Sciences (Switzerland), vol.11, no.16, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI Expanded) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 11 Issue: 16
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/app11167614
  • Title of Journal : Applied Sciences (Switzerland)
  • Keywords: Active learning, Hyperspectral imaging system, Machine learning, Markov random fields, Multinomial logistic regression, Segmentation framework, Semi-supervised learning

Abstract

© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.A new methodology, the hybrid learning system (HLS), based upon semi-supervised learning is proposed. HLS categorizes hyperspectral images into segmented regions with discriminative features using reduced training size. The technique utilizes the modified breaking ties (MBT) algorithm for active learning and unsupervised learning-based regressors, viz. multinomial logistic regression, for hyperspectral image categorization. The probabilities estimated by multinomial logistic regression for each sample helps towards improved segregation. The high dimensionality leads to a curse of dimensionality, which ultimately deteriorates the performance of remote sensing data classification, and the problem aggravates further if labeled training samples are limited. Many studies have tried to address the problem and have employed different methodologies for remote sensing data classification, such as kernelized methods, because of insensitiveness towards the uti-lization of large dataset information and active learning (AL) approaches (breaking ties as a repre-sentative) to choose only prominent samples for training data. The HLS methodology proposed in the current study is a combination of supervised and unsupervised training with generalized composite kernels generating posterior class probabilities for classification. In order to retrieve the best segmentation labels, we employed Markov random fields, which make use of prior labels from the output of the multinomial logistic regression. The comparison of HLS was carried out with known methodologies, using benchmark hyperspectral imaging (HI) datasets, namely “Indian Pines” and “Pavia University”. Findings of this study show that the HLS yields the overall accuracy of {99.93 and 99.98%}Indian Pines and {99.14 and 99.42%}Pavia University for classification and segmentation, respectively.