© 2021 Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. All rights reserved.Background:The importance of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) has increased in recent years. This study aimed to assess HRQoL in children with ALL, affecting factors, and the relationship between parent proxy-report and child self-report HRQoL.Materials and Methods:A total of 59 children and their parents (both mother and father) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Turkish version of the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) 3.0 Cancer Modules were used to determine HRQoL.Results:According to subscales of the self-report form, nausea and operational anxiety scores differed significantly by the treatment status; communication score varied considerably by the hospitalization length of stay; pain and hurt, cognitive problems, and perceived physical appearance scores differed significantly by the maternal chronic disease status (P<0.05). The presence of maternal chronic disease was significantly related to the total score of the parent-proxy report (mother) (P<0.05). There was a moderate correlation between total scores of child and mother (P<0.05, r=0.419) but not with the father.Conclusion:Children on-treatment had significant problems in nausea and procedural anxiety subscales; however, children who were hospitalized more had fewer issues in the communication subscale. Also, children whose mother had chronic disease had poorer HRQoL regarding pain and hurt cognitive problems and treatment anxiety. Given the importance of assessment and monitoring HRQoL in children with ALL, health professionals should be aware of how parents' chronic disease affects HRQoL. Psychosocial support should be provided to children and their parents, especially for those whose parents have a chronic illness.